Crowdsourcing in the field of interface design takes tasks traditionally performed by specific individuals and spreads them out among a group of people or a community. These assignments are usually done through an open call. Crowdsourcing has become increasingly popular with the growth of Web 2.0 and online communities.

Write a fifteen-page paper in which you:

Examine the invention and growth of crowdsourcing in the field of interface design.

Describe the impact that crowdsourcing has had on the field of interface design.

Analyze and discuss at least three (3) benefits of incorporating crowdsourcing in a design project.

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Analyze and discuss at least three (3) challenges of incorporating crowdsourcing in a design project.

Propose a solution for generating interest in your design project from an online community.

Suggest a solution for evaluating the skill set and quality of the code submitted by potentially unknown users.

Describe how crowdsourcing may affect the budget and timeline of a design project.

Assess crowdsourcing in regard to the legal, societal, and ethical issues it raises, and suggest methods to alleviate these concerns.

Use at least five (5) quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.

Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

Compare and contrast the design and development processes in HCI.

Describe legal, societal, and ethical issues in HCI design.

Describe the inherent design issues across HCI environments.

Analyze and evaluate interface design models.

Use technology and information resources to research issues in human-computer interaction.

Write clearly and concisely about HCI topics using proper writing mechanics and technical style conventions.

Click here to view the grading rubric for this assignment

I have attached the paper that i had already starte working on. Continue from where i have left off and add 12 more pages. I also do not wish to have any plagiarism at all. All papers are ran through Safeassign. Attach the plagiarism report

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Term Paper: Crowdsourcing

Introduction

Crowdsourcing refers to gathering information, work, or ideas from a large group of individuals, primarily via the internet, smartphones, or social media. The use of crowdsourcing has grown over the past, with most government, organizations, and businesses utilizing it to gather information. However, crowdsourcing in interface design is a practice that gains information on implementing new ideas on goods or services. It takes a job usually handled by an employee within a company and outsourced to an unsupervised people. For this reason an organization can establish collaboration

n with a collection of individuals or communities through social media to garner new ideas. Crowdsourcing has become a popular way to obtain the needed services, ideas, or even products due to ever-advancing technology. Social media is becoming an essential platform by allowing organizations to reach their target audience faster and cheaper.

Current employees’ input can be utilized if they are a source of good ideas. Those that accept outsourcing agreements generally receive monetary reimbursement. According to Doan, Ramakrishnan, Halevy (2011), the goal is to enlist a crowd of people to tackle variaous issues or challenges upon the implementation of a new product or device. Crowdsourcing can encompass any number of business practices and a method investing in innovative ideas utilizing a community of innovators, which allows for widespread constructive and informative collaboration.

In my research, I found that LEGO currently utilizes crowdsourcing on its idea’s platform, where users can give input on their ideas for new LEGO sets (planbox.com, 2018). LEGO structured voter feedback ability on new ideas. With the use of this platform, it allows creative innovators the ability to give fresh, creative ideas that can give any business a jump-start. This paper seeks to discuss the concept of crowdsourcing as depicted in interface design.

Crowdsourcing: Invention and Growth

In 2006, crowdsourcing was born as a concept of seeking information and ideas, this is according to Pan & Blevis (2011). However, numerous research and statistics dating back to the eighteenth century depict crowdsourcing’s utilization as a means of gathering the needed information. Due to the rapid growth in technology, every industry utilizes crowdsourcing following its use by many predecessors in governments, science, and businesses. According to Planters Peanuts (2020), crowdsourcing was utilized in the birth of Mr. Peanut. Planters afforded its first logo by crowdsourcing for the current Mr. Peanut mascot.

Planter held a contest to obtain sketches of the best Mr. Peanut. A young schoolboy sketched the body of Mr. Peanut, submitted it, and won. A freelance artist later added the hat and other items. This shows that crowdsourcing has been around for a long time and has been utilized. It was not given a formal name until 2006. The value of crowdsourcing has always been there; however, the methods it was administered had not been. With the growth in modern technology, information is at your fingertips and allows access to a vast amount of information that has been relevant in the growth of outsourcing and how it is shared.

According to Our World Data (2019), the rise of social media led to the idea of Crowd Sourcing and credence to the idea that groups are more powerful (or effective) than individuals. Crowdsourcing has evolved over the years with interface design, allowing for editing, creating content, and visualization. In 2005 some major companies such as Google, eBay, and Amazon began the utilization of crowdsourcing. In today’s environment, the swift and immense acceptance of these interface design technologies is changing how companies find crowdsourcing partners. Businesses can now benefit from the sources available locally to complete such projects as a collaboration of minds and not limit themselves to the company’s sources. Software engineers and other program developers frequently use crowdsourcing to gather information needed to create a design that meets customer’s needs. Human-Computer Interaction allows users to harness social skills through crowdsourcing, providing effective approaches to solve complicated problems.

Impact of Crowdsourcing on Interface Design (350)

Crowdsourcing not only gathers information but also provides a stage where people can engage and learn from each other. Customer feedback is an integral part of helping business maximize their performance and productivity. Engaging with customers, both current and potential, gives an organization the chance to pinpoint areas of concern and potential improvement. According to Dwarakanath et al. (2015), the number of mobile devices and tablet PCs user gradually increases annually across the globe. For this reason, the internet has become more and more universally accessible, leveraging crowdsourcing. The growing numbers allow small portions of work, commonly known as tasks to be distributed among willing individuals who are ready to accomplish the desired objective.

One of the most isolated impacts of crowdsourcing in interface design is the low prices it attracts. Pan & Blevis (2011) explain that compared to the cost of hiring a dedicated professional, crowdsourcing proves a more economical method. Distributing the task through group of individuals breaks down a large project into small task, enables the organization to spread the expense of the project. For this cause, the cost of accomplishing the task is minimized to an affordable price that saves the company from incurring unnecessary expenses. Additionally, the majority of organizations prefer crowdsourcing because of the different ideas that can be utilized.

The low prices are also facilitated by how many willing people are ready to take-up a task at any given time. Flash forward, crowdsourcing in its application to design interface promises an overwhelming potential. For example, as denoted by Brabham (2013), CrwodCrit, as an academic domain, creates several dimensions aimed at receiving feedback from workers. The workers choose from a list of potential negative and positive statements, after which certain information is provided. Crowdsourcing has also helped to develop real-time human computation. Through systems such as VizWiz, crowdsourcing allows companies to receive feedback within a shorter period compared to assigning the task to one individual (Dwarakanath et al., 2015). Crowdsourcing has also changed the recruitment process, made online transactions more secure and fast, and inherently allows access to diverse skills and experiences.

As companies recruit more personnel, it can select individuals or groups of people who meet their expectation. After a group has completed their task, they can receive their payment through online payment methods. During the design process, the diversification of skills guides users and improves skills and expertise in drawing. The designers can then outsource this information to a group of people, which can pinpoint areas of improvement. On the other hand, crowdsourcing could pose a dead-end challenge to designers and other professionals. Most crowd workers are individual who operate as free lancers. Qualified professional with the right skill set tend to sell their services to a specific company instead of advertising on platforms waiting for any interested client. The preference for outsourcing ideas and services through the distribution of small tasks to groups denies qualified professionals the opportunity to put their skills and experience into practice. With the rising use of social media platforms to source knowledge and skilled personnel, many professional may be compelled to think otherwise. However, some professionals have begun venturing into the crowdsourcing business, through blogger pages, and websites to sell their services. Organizations and design teams must consider the impact of unbalance relations that could result from exaggerated crowdsourcing.

Advantages of Using Crowdsourcing in a Design Project

Every technological innovation pushes the world into a new and previously unseen direction. Even though crowdsourcing has been around for as long as history recalls, the inception of the internet has enhanced the power of crowdsourcing to make it a powerful tool for entrepreneurs. In the interface design field, crowdsourcing provides the benefit of a vast pool of skills and allows working on a design interface using collective brainpower. In that case, the availability of diverse superlative problem solvers (Hansson, Ludwig & Aitamurto, 2019), gives inspiration to designers; consequently, helping create a more user-friendly interface. Outstanding solutions to a design project can be proposed, granted that contributors are sourced from various backgrounds, possessing different skills and expertise.

Additionally, crowdsourcing allows a firm to pay-as-it-goes, while at the same time meeting deadlines of lucrative contracts. By reducing overheads in a company or organization, crowdsourcing enables the access of qualified designers who are not necessarily permanent employees. Crowdsourcing allows design firms to access a certain set of skills even without having to retain the professional on the payroll. Accommodating a big project with a tight deadline is one benefit that the interface design field enjoys. Using crowdsourcing, a firm can outsource the workload and distribute it among the online community. Within no time, the work is done, and parties are happy and satisfied. Prestridge (2017) argues that the best way to develop an interface that meets the user’s needs entails involving the user in the design process.

Crowdsourcing allows designers to ask their target customers what kind of interface would best meet their demands. Notably, through this method, interface designers have overcome challenges of unexpected risk with profound results. Through crowdsourcing, designers can find solutions to unexpected problems, which were initially unidentifiable. The original idea of this benefit of crowdsourcing is to bring in outside knowledge and skills to challenge conventional thinking. Outside thinking is a seeming competition for the internal design team, which challenges their thinking. Correspondingly, crowdsourcing allows a business to set right its terms, goals, and objectives, thereupon reducing management burden.

Often, individuals who are picked to oversee the operations of an organization suffer the burden of care and anxiety as the internal team tends to relax and leave all activities with their leader. A team is meant to operate under the principles of collaborative individual skill set. When the accomplishment of a single task is left to a single individual, the results are not rewarding as they it would be expected. Crowdsourcing awakens the thought of accountability and individual performance recognition. As a result, thinkers and designers are challenged to contribute their thoughts to avoid sinking into indolence and inactivity. On balance, a reduction in individual performance and productivity translates to a reduced overall performance of an organization. Therefore, to enhance performance, crowdsourcing should be considered occasionally, or frequently, to bring the challenge to the internal team. As employees strive to become the best, they put forth their best skills and push themselves to their elastic limit. Consequently, healthy competition is created among the employees, resulting in improved overall productivity and performance.

 

 

Crowdsourcing Challenges in a Design Project

Despite the numerous advocated advantages of conjoining crowdsourcing throughout the life of design project, experts have also singled out several challenges. According to Nov, Laut & Porfiri (2016), to better understand the critical part crowdsourcing holds in interface design, the scope of advantages and challenges incurred is inevitable. One challenge that the interface design field encounter entails the compromise of confidentiality. A firm that values confidentiality can be at the risk of suffering exposure to its sensitive information to the public. A recent report by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in the United States (Brabham, 2013), believes that compromised confidentiality is the deadliest downfall of crowdsourcing in design projects. Crowdsourcing opens the door to anyone interested. The technique dose not narrow down to specification, but rather invites any potential candidate who can contribute to the accomplishment of the task. It therefore means that the organization could leak its mot confidential information to unauthorized persons. When such data falls into the hands of individuals, namely, competitors or persons affiliated to an organization’s competitors, this may increase the chances of liking critical information.

Outsourcing information and ideas from the public put the company’s secrets at the risk of falling into the wrong hands; namely, competitors may use this information to their advantage. In like manner, someone can hurry to register domains based on the same ideas before the real owner can put out the complete project. Crowdsourcing invites the challenge of missing out on the best professionals out there. Most of the designers and thinkers who are renowned due to their exceptional expertise and skills are handsomely paid. For this reason, it is hard to find qualified professionals working as freelancers. Also, some of these professionals prefer to work for specific organizations to safeguard their quality and deliver the best. A professional working on an interface design contributes to the promotion and advertisement of products and services. Once a customer notes that a particular product is affiliated with a certain individual, they opt to purchase the goods and services from that company. While crowdsourcing can be cheaper and faster, working with the best automatically guarantees the desired results.

Interestingly, the main disadvantage associated with crowdsourcing in interface design mirrors the advantage. Although crowdsourcing avails at low cost, cheap is expensive and expensive is cheap. A task that is deemed above simple could result in challenges if solved through crowdsourcing. Further, crowdsourcing poses a challenge, particularly on management. The large scale of workers could compose of people who are qualified in the line of business. At the same time, sourcing for an online community could be a challenge since it is time-consuming. In light of this, it makes it difficult for different internal teams to collaborate with crowd members, and as a result, more problems are created than solutions (Prestridge, 2017). Point often overlooked, crowdsourcing does not operate under terms and conditions, namely, contracting to work. Therefore, the hired workers can opt-out at any given time, and this could turn out worst when dealing with tight deadlines.

Creating Interest in Design Projects for an Online Community: Solution

Communities have been around since antiquity. From the family circle, communities bring together individuals who share common interests and ideas. After the World Wide Web was made available publicly, online communities have transformed real-life into a more or less never unimaginable world. Online communities have grown over the years as integral parts of the community, given that recent data approximates eighty-three percent of internet users also participate in such community projects; this is according to Hansson, Ludwig & Aitamurto (2019). Offline and online communities are not two mutually exclusive conduits; studies by Facebook has shown that the two concepts are complementary. On balance, several practical strategies can be utilized to ignite interest in an online community towards a given design project.

Subsequently, as the number of customers increases, they tend to form a community-bond like a relationship. Online communities are typical to Real-life communities. Correspondingly, whatever is done at the fundamental level of a physical community, to keep it functioning efficiently must be adopted into the virtual world. Shvartzshnaider et al. (2016) elaborating further believe that the same habits that keep together the physical communities are inevitably applicable to an online community. Creating value and effective communication are critical conduits of developing interest in design projects. Communication equals community, so it is said. In that case, communication is an essential yet successful tool that keeps the liveliness of the community going.

Communication is the building block of forming an active and lively online community. Through social media platform or online crowdsourcing platforms, members of the community can comfortably have a conversation with business owners. Online communities are not intended for self-promotion; on the contrary, like in offline communities, they require putting the customer first, seconded by the brand.

The role played by the big data, granted the public access to vast amounts of data, allowing for the existence of an engaging community. Combining communication with value creation leads to a better customer relationship management.

For this reason, marketers can maximize the opportunity to advertise their projects. For example, the sharing of information, which adds value to the community’s life, develops a unique interest. An organization can post about an exciting design and share their thoughts; consequently, taking the customers’ reaction as ideas to incorporate into the new design.

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Skill Set Evaluation and Quality of Code Assessment

Job providers are ever seeking skilled personnel that can contribute to the organization’s objectives. Due to the massive online community market, it becomes trickier to determine the quality of Code and required set skills. For example, when an organization requires to accomplish a given task, it can prefer to choose crowdsourcing technics, due to low cost, to get the job done (Dwarakanath et al., 2015). However, obtaining the right individuals with the proper qualifications is a challenge. In any workplace, both soft and technical skills are necessary to obtain professional results. An efficient solution requires focusing on job-specific skills and test both soft and technical skills. Even though the job description could be oriented to technical work, soft skills are not mutually exclusive. Soft shills help an individual to communicate with others and explain their technical skills.

On the other hand, technical skills allow an individual to manifest their ability in line with their profession. Combining soft skills and technical skills with job-specification affords the organization the right person for the job. The company can also create a coding standard that brings everyone under its shadow. The coding standard ensures that each employee coming on board uses the right style. Training the developers, and working with them to comply becomes a center stage for analyzing the best quality of Code. Again, narrow down the evaluation to personalizing each skill assessment. People are different, and the one fits all size is nonetheless inapplicable in a situation.

Personalized quality code assessments based on tastes, preferences, and position within the organization. Fundamentally, each department, for example, could develop their assessment procedures, instead of analyzing the irrelevant set of skills. During training, which is a significant step in the recruitment of an organization, personalizing skill adds value to the program, allowing employees to relate the subject matter, and why the assessment is necessary. The reason for carrying out personalized assessment includes providing the employee with information that helps them know whether they can improve their performance and achieve objectives.

Budget and Timeline of a Design Project: Implications of Crowdsourcing

The baseline obtained after conducting a cost estimate of all individual project activities explains the necessity of having a budgeting process in any project development. With all the total estimated costs obtained, the organization can set a realistic goal. Budgeting and timeline are vastly different but not necessarily mutually exclusives. Timeline creates a chronological order of events, which the company can follow. According to Dwarakanath et al. (2015), although crowdsourcing lowers the cost and accomplishes the task efficiently, hiring a professional designer can have a significant impact on the brand of a company. Many of these crowdsource users are potentially unknown and could use fraud, or other people’s identity to secure a position. Agreeably, cheap is expensive, while expensive is cheap. Where the organization can invest enough to hire proper professionals, Shvartzshnaider et al. (2016) believe that this could be the best way to achieve the best.

Crowdsourcing has allowed business owners, with upcoming projects, to gather information necessary for similar projects. On balance, proper planning is achieved in terms of budgeting and timeline. Correspondingly, online communities provide the insight necessary to achieve the desired objective. Organizations can, for example, post different proposal, and use the feedback to choose the most effective project to work. It must be remembered that the aim of a business is not to gain profit, but similarly, to provide quality. Crowdsourcing can be an excellent source for small and medium-size, start-up businesses.

When such organizations get into the market, they begin picking their projects to facilitate long-term growth and development. The success of every project provides a scope of the entire trajectory. Therefore, the concept of crowdsourcing has gained traction with business owners. The risk of obtaining misleading information is also high and could impact the budget and timeline of the project. Incorrect information causes a company to hire unqualified personnel to achieve their objectives, which can result in estimating incorrect budgets and anticipating irrelevant time.

Crowdsourcing Legal, Societal and Ethical Issues alongside Methods of Alleviation

The Copyright Law meant to protect intellectual property, does not exhaust the stakes. Due to the vast number of people involved in crowdsourcing, the risk of infringement and exploitation increases. In that context, companies can follow the right procedure to obtain full rights grants and file a claim against any infringement directed to the products and services. The misuse of private data and the protection of the intellectual property is critical legal issues revolving around crowdsourcing (Shvartzshnaider et al., 2016). Since anyone can access crowdsourcing, the collection of personal information puts this data at risk making it easier for hackers and identity to access limited confidential data. Creating awareness and abiding by the law can help to curb these concerns. The more people are aware of the law, the more they learn to adapt to its requirements

Ethical issues form the most fundamental part of issues for making decisions. The utilization of crowdsourcing in an organization can be a leading cause of ethical issues. Before crowd workers can enter into a contract, they must ensure that their privacy is protected. Granted that the accomplishment of a task depends on how fast a worker can source and analyze data to provide the most appropriate answers. The safety and security of online workers must be protected before bringing them on board. Another ethical issue relates to the reliability and accurateness of the provided information. Although all ideas are considered valuable, it is crucial to produce information that respects the ethical principles of accuracy. Dealing with information through intellective skill and protection of property fall under legal and ethical issue.

Notably, ethics and law are not vastly different in their application; sometimes, the terms complement one another. As a result, a company can prepare a Code of Ethics, promote corporate social responsibility, as well as invest in international culture. In terms of societal issues, crowdsourcing requires structure to obtain the desired goal. Every society has a structure. No matter how much the project is designed to please the audience, the community norms must be considered. Without adherence to the norms of a community, it is not easy to obtain the proper feedback. Another societal issue is discrimination and time-consuming. When selecting the crowd of workers to work with, discrimination with color, background, education levels, and position of responsibility can raise societal issues. Point often overlooked, the crowdsourcing community is the community at the physical level. For this reason, the quality of results in regards to crowdsourcing depends on the characteristics of the crowd chosen to fulfill the task. Depending on the demographical, age, gender, and professionalism of the crowd, the results reflects everything in plain truth. Community management, as a vital aspect, involves grassroots customer service to sustain community interest by providing community management resources. Promoting Corporate Social Responsibility, while conjoining societal values into the Code of Ethics minimizes societal issues in crowdsourcing.

 

Conclusion

Conclusively, the significant changes recorded in the industry of interface design is precipitated by collaborating the design process with. On balance, without crowdsourcing interface design could not have made such an enormous step. Gathering ideas and opinions from a large group accomplishes a specific task in a short period while at the same time allowing access to more skilled professionals to handle the tasks. Despite its existence even before 2006, crowdsourcing continued to be an integral tool in accomplishing goals. The prevalence of Crowdsourcing today is dramatically beyond expectation; nonetheless, the advantages outweigh the challenges. Crowdsourcing cuts the cost and gives firms a chance to elevate their operations and capture diverse skills.

Crowdsourcing gives a chance to the internal team to work with unfamiliar groups who challenge their thinking. Collective brainpower, working on a single broken down task, grants workers the chance to work with people with different ideas and possessing different skills and expertise. Crowdsourcing challenges conventional thinking by bringing onboard outside knowledge and skills. The challenge of a potential confidentiality compromise diminishes the confidence of organizations in the crowdsourcing. Additionally, it is easier to miss out on the best professional, who, in one way or the other create lasting value for the customers. Constant communication and creating value are key elements in generating interest in an online community. Frequently, legal, ethical, and societal issues, stand as threats to crowdsourcing, especially in a world growing into an international community.

 

References

Daren C. Brabham. (2013). Crowdsourcing. The Mit Press.

Dwarakanath, A., Chintala, U., Shrikanth, N. C., Virdi, G., Kass, A., Chandran, A., & Paul, S. (2015, May). Crowd build: A methodology for enterprise software development using crowdsourcing. In 2015 IEEE/ACM 2nd International Workshop on CrowdSourcing in Software Engineering (pp. 8-14). IEEE.

Hansson, K., Ludwig, T., & Aitamurto, T. (2019). Capitalizing Relationships: Modes of Participation in Crowdsourcing. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW)28(5), 977-1000.

Nov, O., Laut, J., & Porfiri, M. (2016). Using targeted design interventions to encourage extra‐role crowdsourcing behavior. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology67(2), 483-489.

Pan, Y., & Blevis, E. (2011, May). A survey of crowdsourcing as a means of collaboration and the implications of crowdsourcing for interaction design. In 2011 International Conference on Collaboration Technologies and Systems (CTS) (pp. 397-403). IEEE.

Prestridge, S. (2017). Conceptualising self-generating online teacher professional development. Technology, Pedagogy and Education26(1), 85-104.

Shvartzshnaider, Y., Tong, S., Wies, T., Kift, P., Nissenbaum, H., Subramanian, L., & Mittal, P. (2016, September). Learning privacy expectations by crowdsourcing contextual informational norms. In Fourth AAAI Conference on Human Computation and Crowdsourcing.

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