ExpertPaperWriters has created this Harvard reference guide to assist you with formatting your custom essay in the Harvard style of citation and referencing, which is widely used. You can learn how to do so by visiting:

  • general formatting guidelines for your work
  • offer citations within the body of the text
  • assemble a reference collection

Let’s get this party started by defining the Harvard referencing style.

What Is Harvard Style, and How Do I Use It?

Aside from the American Psychological Association, Modern Language Association, and Chicago styles, Harvard style is one of the most widely used formatting styles in academic writings. The general format of the document, including the size of the margins, the desired font, and so on, is dictated by the Harvard format. It also offers guidelines for citing sources, both inside the text of the paper and in the reference list at the end of the document.

Formatting Instructions for Papers

General Requirements.

  • All sides should have 1-inch margins.
  • The fonts Times New Roman or Arial 12 pt. are recommended for this project.
  • There is a double space between the lines.
  • The text is oriented to the left of the screen.
  • The first line of each paragraph is indented by 0.5′′ to give it more space.
  • You should include a title in the center of your first page, immediately before the text.
  • Headers and page numbers are included (see below).
  • Subheadings (which divide the document into sections), a title page, an outline (which serves as a plan for your work), and/or a list of references are all possible additions to your paper (see below).

Title, headers, and page numbers

  • Put a title before the body of your document and center it in the middle of the page. Make sure to capitalize all of the important words, such as: How to Write an Essay. There are no capitalization marks for articles, short conjunctions, and prepositions. Do not use indentation, italicization, underlining, or bolding in your title.
  • The header of your paper should have a page number that is located in the upper right corner of each page.
  • Fill in the blanks with your last name, which should appear directly before the page number.


Subheadings are used to break your paper into sections. Examples of level 1 headings are those that divide the entire paper into sections. Under the Level 2 titles, each of those parts is divided into subsections.

Level 1 headings have the same appearance as the title of the publication. To put it another way, they are centered, capitalized, not bolded, not underlined, not italicized, and not indented at any point. Following the heading, begin typing your text on a new line as you would normally (with the first line of your text indented by 0.5′′).

The first letter of each level 2 header is capitalized as well. They, on the other hand, are flush left (aligned to the left margin of the paper). In addition, they are italicized. After this subheading, begin typing your subsection on a new line, just as you would normally.

Formatting the title page.

The title page, also known as the cover page, is the very first page of your work and serves as the introduction to your paper. It contains the essential information about it, which is as follows:

  • This is the title of your paper, in all capital letters. It should be centered on the page and approximately one-third of the way down the page, unless otherwise specified.
  • Your name should be in the center of the page, around halfway down the page, and should not be capitalized.
  • Place the name and number of your course in the center of the page around two-thirds of the way down the page. Your professor’s name will be on the following line, followed by the name of your university (again on the following line), and lastly, the date on the line after that will be written.

By clicking on the button down below, you can access a template that includes an essay cover page example, headers, subheadings, and a reference list sample, among other things.

Format for a Harvard Outline.

An outline is a strategy for organizing your paper. It follows the title page and contains a list of all of the subsections of the paper. Simply write the word “Outline” in the center of the page, in the first line, and place it in the center of the page. After that, make a list of all of the level 1 subheadings that you have in your paper (use a numbered list). Align them to the left and capitalize the first letter of each.

Level 2 subheadings should be listed under the matching level 1 subheadings as bullet points, if you have any such. Make sure you don’t mess up the numbering of your level 1 subheadings by doing so. Although the level 2 subheadings should be aligned to the left, they should probably be indented a little (say, half an inch) for better visual impact. They should not be italicized, but should instead be capitalized.

If everything has been completed correctly, your outline should look similar to the one shown in the template above.

This is a reference list for the Harvard style.

In your Harvard references section, you should include the phrase “Reference List.” These two words, like all level 1 subheadings, should be capitalized and centered in the paragraph. It is necessary to include a bibliographical record for each source that you used in your paper in the list. In contrast, each source that is cited in the work must have a corresponding item in the reference list.

Learn more about how to structure your bibliographical entries by reading the sections below, or simply ask one of our experienced essay writers for assistance.

In-Text Citations in Harvard Style are formatted as follows:

General Requirements.

Make sure to cite all of your sources.

It is necessary to offer a Harvard-style in-text reference whenever you use information from any sources in your paper in order to demonstrate where the information originated. Otherwise, your text will be judged to be plagiarized by the university.

The display of in-text citations in general.

In Harvard style, citations are in parentheses and consist of the author’s surname and the year of publication, respectively. They have the following appearance: (Smith & Johnson 2018). Alternatively, you can add the page number, as follows: (Smith & Johnson 2018, p. 35).

Quotes in their original form.

If you provide exact words from a source, you must enclose the quote in quotation marks and provide the page number in your in-text reference in order to follow Harvard citing guidelines. If you are quoting from a website, you must give the page number of the paragraph where the words were taken from, for example: (Smith & Johnson 2018, para. 4). Simply count the number of paragraphs on the web page you are referencing.

Authors who are mentioned in the book.

Unless otherwise specified, do not use parenthesis when mentioning the names of the authors in the text. Additionally, the word “and” should be used instead of the ampersand (&). For example, you may write: According to Smith and Johnson (2018) on page 15, jumping from a building is potentially harmful to one’s health.

Citing an author who has been referenced in another source.

You should mention the author’s name when referring to an author who is discussed in a secondary source, but you should also state that the author is “cited in” the source you are using. If you are referring to an author who is discussed in a secondary source, you should mention the author’s name when referring to the source you are using. As an example, if Kraut is talking about Plato, you could say: Plato believed that the existence of the soul is independent of the body in which it is contained (cited in Kraut 2017).
Please keep in mind that in this situation, you will be required to include a bibliographic item for Kraut rather than for Plato in the References List.

Several sources are cited in a single reference.

You should list your sources in the same order that they appear in your Reference List, and use a semicolon to separate them, as seen in the following example: (Johnson 2015; Smith 2014).

Examples of the Different Types of In-Text Citations

In Harvard referencing, the appearance of in-text citations varies based on how many authors are included in your source. In each scenario, we present two citing examples: in one, the source is not stated in the text, and in the other, it is mentioned in the text.

There is only one author.

After dinner, it is recommended that you brush your teeth (Anderson 2015).
After dinner, according to Anderson (2015), you should brush your teeth.

There are two authors.

Some students may find writing papers to be a pleasurable experience (Ironicous & Sarcastish 2016).
It has been suggested that some students may truly love writing papers, according to Ironicous and Sarcastish (2016).

There are three authors.

Gas giants do not have a hard platform on which to stand (Peachy, Fluffy & Cozy 2014).
The authors of Peachy, Fluffy, and Cozy (2014) claim that gas giants do not have a hard surface.

Four or more authors are required.

Physically punishing children is often seen as a dangerous technique that should be avoided at all costs (Kickbutt et al. 2016).
According to Kickbutt et al. (2016), physically punishing children is a detrimental behavior that should be avoided at all costs.

The source that has been edited

López-Carresi and colleagues (2014) argue that disaster management is essential for risk reduction.
It is essential to have a disaster management plan in place, according to the book edited by López-Carresi and colleagues (2014).

General Guidelines for Formatting the Reference List

  • The list is in alphabetical order. If you have more than one reference item, your reference list should be alphabetized by the first letter of the first word of each entry (which is usually the first author’s surname). If, on the other hand, a reference item begins with the words “a,” “an,” or “the,” do not include them in the alphabetization and instead begin with the first letter of the next word.

Consider the following scenario: If you reference a source in which the authors are not identified, and the entry begins with the title of the source, such as “The Importance of Doing Things Well,” you should arrange the entry alphabetically according to the term “importance.”

  • The order in which entries are placed. The first line of each bibliographical entry in the Harvard reference style must be a new line. They are oriented to the left and do not have any indentation (which makes your reference list look like a total mess).
  • Continue to use double-spaced paragraphs throughout your reference list.
  • Capitalization. When writing titles for books, book chapters, and articles from the Web, just the initial letter of each word should be capitalized. When mentioning scientific journals or newspapers, however, make sure to capitalize all of the major words in their names (i.e., not prepositions, articles, conjunctions, etc.).

See the examples of Harvard citations below for more information.

  • Multiple authors are cited in one sentence. In-text citations, you must use “et al.” when there are four or more writers in a source; nonetheless, you must name all of the authors in a bibliographic entry, regardless of whether you are using Harvard style. Yes, each and every one of them, even if there are 25 of them.
  • Several works by the same author are available online. Citations for sources by the same author should be organized according to the year of publication in the Harvard-style reference list. The following format should be used if more than one work by the same author has been published in the same year: arrange them in alphabetical order by their titles, then add letters such as “a,” “b,” and “c” after the year:
    James H. Smith (2014a), A huge book, published by Big Book Publisher in London, United Kingdom.
    Smith, JH 2014b, A small book, London, United Kingdom: Small Book Publisher.

You’re having trouble with the Harvard referencing style; are you stuck?

In comparison to other referring methods, the Harvard referencing style is considered to be extremely distinctive. Scholars face difficulties in ensuring that their articles are written in the proper manner for publication. When properly used, the Harvard reference style may be quite useful in acknowledging the contributions of other writers in academic work, particularly in the sciences. This understanding inspired ExpertPaperWriters to introduce its Harvard referencing style support in order to assist academics in addressing instances of plagiarism in their academic work. We are eager to assist you in completing a well-referenced paper while also guaranteeing that your work is completely original and 100% plagiarism-free.

Personnel with expertise

Our Harvard referencing style assistance is provided by writers and editors with extensive experience. Such employees have excellent academic credentials, with a minimum of a Bachelor’s Degree in their respective professions as their minimal academic qualification. Our staff members have a similar amount of experience in providing Harvard reference style assistance. This has contributed significantly to the enhancement of our reputation as one of the greatest organizations in the industry. Numerous educational institutions all over the world have come to rely on our high-quality Harvard referencing style assistance as a standard for professionally formatted documents. In-text citations and parenthetical references are just a few of the things we can help you with.

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When it comes to providing Harvard reference style assistance, we are quite conscientious. We are well aware of the serious ramifications that late submission of your work could have on your grade. As a result, we have made it a priority to provide our Harvard referencing style assistance within the specified time frames. In addition, we have earned a reputation for providing some of the most affordable services available in the industry. Despite the fact that we promise high-quality Harvard referencing style assistance, we have made significant attempts to keep our services as economical as possible. As a result, ExpertPaperWriters can provide you with quick and reasonably priced Harvard referencing style assistance.

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